Critical Photons are made by switching a Ray Receiver to "Photon" mode, instead of Energy mode.
A Ray Receiver in Photon mode produces 6 Critical Photons per minute, while consuming 62.5 MW. When a Graviton Lens is inserted, the Ray Receiver consumes 125 MW and produces 12 Critical Photons per minute.
Note that this is the raw energy needed. The actual drain on the Dyson Sphere / Swarm is higher when the ray receiving efficiency is not 100%. See Ray Receiver for more information.
There is no production chain as such for Critical Photons. They are a raw resource much like ore, but "mining" them happens by collecting energy from the Dyson Swarm or Dyson Sphere.
Player Tips & Tricks
Critical Photons can be put into a Miniature Particle Collider to make 2x Antimatter and 2x Hydrogen. 6 of each are needed to make 1 Antimatter Fuel Rod, so the processing of Critical Photons can be directly put into the manufacture of Antimatter Fuel Rods, with no imbalance. You will, of course, have to supply other materials to finish the Antimatter Fuel Rods.